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Download 1177 BC The Year Civilization Collapsed doc ↠ 241 pages ✓ reflectionslisburnltd ↠ In 1177 BC marauding groups known only as the Sea Peoples invaded Egypt The pharaoh's army and navy managed to defeat them but the victory so weakened Egypt that it soon slid into declIn 1177 BC marauding groups known only as the Sea Peoples invaded Egypt The pharaoh's army and navy managed to defeat them but the victory so weakened Egypt that it soon slid into decline as did most of the surrounding civilizations After centuries of brilliance the civilized world of the Bronze Age came to an abrupt and cataclysmic end Kingdoms fell like dominoes over the course of just a few decades No Minoans or Mycenaeans No Trojans Hittites or Babylonians The thriving economy and cultures of the late second millennium BC whic The so called Dark Ages of the 6th to 13th centuries that followed the demise of the Roman Empire was not the first dark age experienced by human civilization This book explores what archeologists know about the Late Bronze Age collapse circa 1200 BC During the fifty year period from 1225 to 1175 BC the flourishing international trade between nations of the eastern Mediterrainian Sea ceased Advanced cultures of the Mycenaeams Minoans Hittites Assyrians Kassites Cypriots Mitannians Canaanites and Egyptians either disappeared or were greatly dimished Archaeologists have generally blamed the Late Bronze Age collapse to an invasion by the Sea Peoples The term Sea Peoples comes from accounts of their invasion found in Egypt However no conscensous has been reached about who the Sea Peoples were The title year of 1177 BC is the year of the climatic battle between the Egyptians and the Sea Peoples that generally marks the end of the Bronze Age Egypt won the battle but the rest of the eastern Mediterranean countries were already destroyed Egyptian culture continued but greatly diminished in vigor and strengthI was curious what conclusion this author would provide regarding the cause for the Bronze Age collapse The book explores all the various reasons that have been proposed by various scholars over the years The author reports on the most recent archeological findings; and I must say that I'm impressed with how much information researchers have been able to accumulate about the commerce and communication that occurred between the nations 3200 years ago One reason is that communications at the time were done on clay tablets which were able to survive 3000 years of being buried under ruins of the city The author offers the following as a conclusionMore than the coming of the Sea Peoples in 1207 and 1177 BC than the series of earthuakes that rocked Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean during a fifty year span from 1225 to 1175 BC than the drought and climate change that may have been ravaging these areas during this period what we see are the results of a “perfect storm” that brought down the flourishing cultures and peoples of the Bronze Age—from Mycenaeams and Minoans to the Hittites Assyrians Kassites Cypriots Mitannians Canaanites and even EgyptiansIn my opinion none of these individual factors would have been cataclysmic enough on their own to bring down even one of these civilizations let alone all of them However they could have combined to produce a scenario in which the repercussions of each factor were magnified in what some scholars have called a “multiplier effect” The failure of one part of the system might also have had a domino effect leading to failures elsewhere The ensuing “systems collapse” could have led to the disintegration of one society after another in part because of the fragmentation of the global economy and the breakdown of the interconnections upon which each civilization was dependentSo in other words it was a perfect storm of various catastrophes that coincidentally occurred at about the same time that caused the fall of the Bronze AgeOf course many readers will want to know what the book says about the Biblical account of the Children of Israel who were escaping from Egypt wandering around the Sinai and conuering the land of milk and honey at about this time in history It's almost embarrassing how unhistorical the Biblical stories appear to be compared with the detail that the activities of the other nations in the area have been reconstructed by historians and archeologists The author is pretty diplomatic in his pronouncements but it was clear to me that the Exodus stories are myth and legend based on a conflation of oral accounts reporting of tsunamis eg Minoan eruption of 1600 BCE plagues the Semitic Hyksos and the speculative origin of Canaanite ruins A Minoan fresco from the east wing of the Palace of Knossos From the Early Minoan or Early Middle Minoan Periods 2300 BC to 1600 BC Photograph by D Dagli OrtiDEADe AgostiniGettyThe following is a link to a lecture by Eric H Cline about 1177 BC 1 hr 10 min length interesting review of this book phoenician DNA tells a story of settlement and female mobility

Eric H. Cline ´ 1177 BC The Year Civilization Collapsed pdf

H had stretched from Greece to Egypt and Mesopotamia suddenly ceased to exist along with writing systems technology and monumental architecture But the Sea Peoples alone could not have caused such widespread breakdown How did it happen?In this major new account of the causes of this First Dark Ages Eric Cline tells the gripping story of how the end was brought about by multiple interconnected failures ranging from invasion and revolt to earthuakes drought and the cutting of international trade routes Bringing to life the vibrant m Half the book is the endnotes which was great because I was getting a little weary It's not exactly a narrative history but of a Cliff's Notes version of all the scholarship that has been done on the theories of the Late Bronze Age collapse I could have used context about the players in the century long drama and clarity There's a lot of backtracking from various theories since no one knows for sure the who what where and why about any of it There are scattered facts and conclusions every set of facts has prompted different conclusions and Cline clutters the narrative by removing one factor to put forth one scholarly theory then replacing it and removing another in order to describe another theory It became a garbled mess after awhileStill it's been nearly 20 years since I last was in this kind of academic discussions and it was interesting to see how the Sea Peoples' theory has changed over time with the wealth of recent discoveries By the end however I was wishing that Cline had chosen a theory or two to focus on instead of being an all the facts in the pot impartial observerThe writing itself was pretty dry in most places though there were some moments that were engagingly written history This book would be a fine launching point for historical fiction or accessible popular history

reader Ü 1177 BC The Year Civilization Collapsed ´ Eric H. Cline

1177 BC The Year Civilization CollapsedUlticultural world of these great civilizations he draws a sweeping panorama of the empires and globalized peoples of the Late Bronze Age and shows that it was their very interdependence that hastened their dramatic collapse and ushered in a dark age that lasted centuriesA compelling combination of narrative and the latest scholarship 1177 BC sheds new light on the complex ties that gave rise to and ultimately destroyed the flourishing civilizations of the Late Bronze Age and that set the stage for the emergence of classical Greec This is a great book for reviewing and cross referencing the current research on the fall of the Bronze Age into darkness at 1177 BC the End of the Egyptian New Kingdom and the Reign of Ramses III for a period of 300 years The linkages between recently dug up newly translated tablets from Ugarit along with pollen core samples radio carbon dating pot shard analysis and sunken treasure is astounding The work that must have gone into any one of these is a testament to the desire for our current civilization to uncover its ancient past One thing a bit troubling is that at the end of the book Cline assumes that the destruction was a catalyst for positive developments in which he lists monotheism Akenaten's reign in Egypt was a pre collapse case that fits the mold of monotheism better than the ElohimJehovah hybrid that the Israelite civilization brought out of the Canaanite ashes of the pre collapse Bronze Age The thought that monotheism was a result of the collapse is both not true systemically systemic considerations was the approach to the book and certainly most societies remained polytheistic and it certainly should not be forwarded as a positive cultural development at least not without ualifications Similarly the idea that alphabetic systems were progress would appear outrageous to the modern Chinese reader and indeed to the student of Akkadian and Hieroglyphics which had significant phonetic character sets There were even Bronze Age alphabet only writing systems extant in 2000 BCE The underrepresented merchant class and the rise of thriving Bronze Age multiculturalism was certainly lost at the collapse and would have been a better example of what actually did lead to the rise in the early Iron Age as the roots of our civilization It wasn't how many gods folks worshiped or if they worshiped any at all But instead it was how effectively they could relate to each other on broad scales and how much scientific and mathematical knowledge and their ability to leverage knowledge in the face of societal challenges The writings of the Bronze Age that included commerce science mathematics and legal political structure are surely the best basis on which to judge the progress and decline of civilization That reading Linear B and cuneiform was indeed lost in the Mediterranean is indeed a loss to humanity's progress Fortunately folks like those Cline mentions constantly in this book researchers anthropologists whatever their motivations are the ones that helped us recover this wonderful history so that we may indeed better contemplate our own fate I learned a lot from Cline The book did leave me wanting information but that is the nature of anthropology of the ancients We must live with a mosaic of fragments no matter how many pieces we recover